Please respond to the (3) following discussions. Each response should be a minimum of 75 words and in APA format. You may use the text provided or any outside text

Please label responses

Textbook provided is from chapter 15 of Ormrod, J. E. (2016). Human learning (7th Ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Response 1 Needed
Attributions are how individuals analyze a situation whether they succeeded in meeting a goal or didn’t receive an essential promotion. One of the factors that is mainly contributed to an event is age.I hear individuals mention that they didn’t receive a promotion because they are too advance in years compared to the individual that did receive the promotion. However, they failed to consider their competition’s education and experience. Gender is another attribution factor that is discussed in certain situations.For instance, girls are still under the impression that males possess a brain that enables them to understand the many complicated equations in math.As a result, the many fields that revolve around mathematics is still highly dominated by males. Culture is a highly attribute factor as some individuals focus exclusively on the accomplishments made in their culture. For instance, some cultures are under the impression that they can’t exceed academically since no member graduated from high school or college.Individuals also search for situational cues when encountering a difficult situation.If an assessment is perceived as difficult by the majority of students in class, then when a student fails the assessment, then they naturally link their failure to the difficulty of the test, instead of their lack of efficient study skills.The history of success and failure is an attributable factor as individuals tend to believe that they either possess or don’t possess an ability to master certain tasks or activities.The teachers on my campus recently had to take the collaboration part of the TELPAS.Some teachers expressed concern over the test due to the fact that they have had to take the exam numerous times and take an additional course just to receive a passing score. Sometimes the comments of others can force an individual to contribute their success to external factors.If a teacher informs a student that he/she got lucky in passing an exam, then the student will feel as if luck contributed to their success instead of their effort which is actually the main factor for their achievement.

Response 2:

The text says, “People’s various explanations for success and failure-their beliefs about what causes what-are attributions. People are often eager to identify the cause of things that happen to them, especially when events are unexpected…Forming attributions is just one of the many ways in which human beings try to make better sense of their world.” (Ormrod, 2016)

Age is a factor in that the younger a person is the more they think effort and ability go hand in hand. They don’t think as much about natural abilities or even luck. The older a person gets, the more they realize they aren’t always in control.

Situational cues go along with perceptions and assumptions. People assume seeing a math problem with a lot of numbers is going to be very difficult.

History of success and failure is a big factor. If a person has had a lot of success in the past they will most likely think success will come easily again. If a person has struggled or had inconsistencies they will not feel as confident in finding success.

Messages from others can be verbal or nonverbal. People form attributions regarding the causes of other people’s performance just as much as they form them for their own performance.

Culture plays a big part in someone’s attributions for themselves. Religion, location of where someone grows up, and family backgrounds affect how a person thinks about their successes.

Self-protective bias is not always accurate. People tend to attribute success to internal causes and failures to external causes. If we always blame external causes for anything that isn’t successful we most likely won’t try to change or fix anything to cause success in the future.

Response 3:

“Attributions can have a significant influence on learners’ performance and achievement in classroom settings” (Blackwell, Trzesniewksi, & Dweck, 2007, as cited in Ormrod, 2016, p. 477). Attributions are known as explanations that students use in response to their successes and failures (Ormrod, 2016). These attributions vary as students explain their success and failure to a variety of functions and ideologies such as the following: situational cues, history of success and failure, culture, gender, self-protective bias, image management and several others. The question we should be asking is why do students attribute success and failure to different functions like situational cues, history of failure, culture, gender, self-protective bias and image management?

Situational cues

Usually when learners experience a difficult assignment such as a 10-15-page paper, they are likely to blame the complexity of the task for failure. Students may be “blinded” by such complexities or challenging tasks that they lose confidence in him or herself, thus blaming the assignment as the cause of failure.

History of Success and Failure

Students have an a very particular belief system in which they attribute successes or failures to internal factors or factors beyond their control. Those who succeed most likely attribute the progression to internal factors but those who fail in inconsistent ways enjoy blaming outside factors such as poor teaching (Ormrod, 2016). Students who experience failure after failure, despite their hard work, attribute failure to their inability.


In and out of classroom settings, students of different backgrounds attribute successes and failures to cultural factors and ethnicity. Some students may believe they are victimized by outside forces such as prejudice teachers. Those who affiliate as religious may attribute their progressions or failures to their deity/deities.


Ormrod illustrates that men and women attributes successes and failures to gender roles. If a culture proclaims that male students succeed far better in one subject than female students, then male students attribute their progress to their “so-called” ability. The same instance would occur for females as well. Culture has an incredibly frightening effect on students in the education system.

Self-protective bias

In order for a student to protect his or her identity/status, he or she may attribute good performance to internal factors such as ability, whereas if a student fails, he or she may attribute failures to bad luck or another person’s shortcomings (Ormrod, 2016, p. 483). Students do this in order to protect themselves.

Image management

Last, students may alter their attributions to different situation that favors the student’s wanted outcome. For example, a student may delay the success or failure of an assignment, if him or her decides that he “sick” thus the student says has more time to work on the project to receive an outcome that suits them.

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