1. A theory of how the Paleo-Indians arrived is that they migrated across the __________ Strait.

a. Bering
b. Mexcia
c. cretaceous
d. Archaic

2. Some evidence suggests that the earliest settlers in the Americas arrived

a. from ancient Egypt.
b. from Peru, where human life is believed to have originated.
c. by boat.
d. on horseback.

3. Mesoamericans founded organized societies about __________ years ago.

a. 5,000
b. 2,000
c. 800
d. 12,000

4. How did most Americans support themselves in the Archaic period?

a. sedentary farming
b. trading with Asia
c. raising livestock
d. hunting and gathering

5. Which group ruled most of central Mexico between 1300 and 1500?

a. Inca
b. Mexica
c. Taíno
d. Maya

6. A written language, a numerical system, a calendar, and advanced agricultural system, and trade routes were features of which culture?

a. Maya
b. Taíno
c. Inca
d. Mexica

7. Which group, located in Peru, created the largest empire in the Americas?

a. Inca
b. Mexica
c. Maya
d. Taíno

8. Native Americans in which region of the United States were most mobile?

a. Northeast
b. Southwest
c. South
d. Cahokia

9. How did the formation of nation states lead to exploration?

a. People fled Europe because kings were cruel.
b. Monarchs formed trade relations with Native Americans.
c. The Catholic church, which opposed exploration, lost all its authority.
d. Monarchs could arrange and finance voyages.

10. Why did the expansion of towns in Europe create a demand for exploration?

a. People who lived in towns did not support the Reconquista.
b. Monarchs had less control over people in towns.
c. Towns gave rise to a merchant class who wanted to trade goods.
d. The church had less control over in towns.

11. Which country first designed ships for international exploration?

a. Spain
b. Portugal
c. France
d. England

12. How did the Reconquista encourage exploration?

a. After the defeat of the Puritans, they wanted a new place to live.
b. After forcing the Moors from Spain, the monarch was eager to spread Christianity.
c. After winning in the Crusades, Spain wanted to encourage travel to the Holy Land.
d. The kings of Europe tightened control of the nation states.

13. The objective of Christopher Columbus was to reach

a. Asia.
b. the Holy Land.
c. Africa.
d. Baffin Island.

14. Which statement about the encomienda system is true?

a. It was based in wage labor.
b. It bound workers to a landlord for seven years.
c. It organized Native Americans into a labor force.
d. It allowed the Mexica to extend their rule into South America.

15. How did the encomienda system differ from European feudalism?

a. The encomienda system bound workers to an individual.
b. In the encomienda system, workers did not do agricultural labor.
c. Race was not a factor in determining social class under the encomienda system.
d. Race was not a factor in determining social class under feudalism.

16. Which idea is consistent with mercantilism?

a. Buying goods leads to prosperity.
b. A country should sell goods instead of buying them.
c. There is no limit to the world’s wealth.
d. Trade among nations benefits everyone.

17. Mercantilism increased __________ among European nations.

a. competition
b. trade
c. military alliances
d. cooperation

18. Which statement best describes the beliefs of Bartolome de Las Casas?

a. The Native Americans should be free to practice their own religious beliefs.
b. The Native Americans must be subdued by force.
c. Europe should trade with the Native Americans but not live in the Americas.
d. Kindness is the best way to spread Christianity among Native Americans.

19. “I obey, but I do not execute” was a policy that established

a. rebellion among Native Americans against Spanish rule.
b. an independence movement in Spain’s colonies.
c. local control in the Spanish colonies.
d. illegal trade between Spain, France, and Britain.

20. The Europeans introduced Native Americans to which crop?

a. beans
b. corn
c. squash
d. sugar

21. The Native Americans introduced Europeans to

a. corn
b. sugar
c. bananas
d. cattle

22. Europeans first became involved in the African slave trade because they wanted

a. soldiers to serve in the crusades.
b. a labor force to cultivate sugarcane.
c. a labor force to mine gold.
d. crews for fishing boats.

23. In the New World, slavery and the encomienda system were different because

a. slavery filled a need for labor.
b.the encomienda system involved agricultural labor.
c. in slavery, race was associated with status.
d. the encomienda system relied on Native American labor.

24. Under mercantilist theory, colonies provided __________ for a mother country.

a. military bases
b. slaves
c. laborers
d. raw materials

25. French colonization in North America centered on

a. labor-intensive crops such as sugar.
b. livestock production.
c. mining gold and silver.
d. the fur trade.

26. The most devastating aspect of the Columbian exchange for Native Americans was

a. disease.
b. slavery.
c. the defeat of the Taíno, which allowed the Incas to take control of Mexico.
d. marketing of corn to Europe, which depleted supplies of grain.

27. Which European nation took the lead in importing slaves from Africa to the New World?

a. Spain
b. France
c. Portugal
d. England

28. How did the Virginia Company attract English settlers to migrate to Jamestown?

a. It offered stock in the company to planters who would migrate.
b. It promised religious freedom for Puritans and Quakers.
c. It sent a fleet of artisans to build new homes for settlers.
d. It paid Native American groups to take care of the settlers.

29. Which crop allowed Jamestown to prosper economically?

a. rice
b. beans
c. corn
d. tobacco

30. Which system encouraged families to migrate to Jamestown?

a. indentured servitude
b. the headright system
c. slavery
d. “I obey, but I do not execute”

31. Which statement best described Bacon’s Rebellion?

a. It was an attempt to protect the rights of Native Americans.
b. Governor Berkeley rebelled against Parliament.
c. Planters in western Virginia rebelled against the tidewater aristocrats.
d. Governor Berkeley rebelled against the king of England.

32. Which statement best describes Governor Berkeley’s position in Bacon’s Rebellion?

a. He wanted to control Virginia’s interactions with Native American groups.
b. He wanted to allow all white men to vote.
c. “I obey, but I do not execute.”
d. He wanted to allow planters in western Virginia to serve in the House of Burgesses.

33. How did the system of indentured servitude affect Bacon’s Rebellion?

a. It prevented many workers from taking up arms.
b. Former servants rallied behind Governor Berkeley.
c. As workers finished their indentures, they wanted land, which caused conflict with Indians.
d. Governor Berkeley used the threat of mob violence to scare Parliament into granting concessions.

34. Which statement best describes predestination?

a. People can earn their way to heaven with good works.
b. God signs a holy covenant with people explaining requirements for salvation.
c. All people have an “inner light,” or a spark of God’s goodness.
d. God determines each person’s ultimate fate before birth.

35. In 1620, the Separatists from Scrooby were retrying to reach

a. Massachusetts.
b. Virginia.
c. Plymouth.
d. Pennsylvania.

36. Who created the Massachusetts Bay Company?

a. King James I
b. King Charles I
c. Puritan merchants
d. Quakers

37. The Mayflower Compact was

a. an attempt a self-government in America.
b. a treaty with Native Americans.
c. a revision of Puritan religious teaching.
d. an agreement to boycott the Virginia Company.

38. What did Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson, and John Wheelwright have in common?

a. They were Quakers.
b. They challenged the Puritan establishment.
c. They remained loyal to traditional Puritan doctrine.
d. They emphasized good relations with Native Americans.

39. Who helped the English settlers win King Philip’s War?

a. Metacomet
b. Oliver Cromwell
c. the Narragansett
d. the Mohawk

40. Which concept is central to Quakerism?

a. God decides who will be saved before they are born.
b. People can earn salvation with good works.
c. Animals, like people, have souls.
d. All people have divinity within them.

41. Which of the following did NOT contribute to Pennsylvania’s success?

a. William Penn’s planning
b. slavery
c. William Penn’s recruiting
d. fertile lands

42. Which colony had the best relations with Native Americans?

a. Massachusetts
b. Virginia
c. New Spain
d. Pennsylvania

43. The Glorious Revolution had what effect on the American colonies?

a. Representative assemblies in the colonies were abolished, and the colonists lost the right to vote.
b. Planters from western Virginia rose up against the leadership of the tidewater aristocrats.
c. England became less strict in enforcing the Navigation Acts, but the colonies remained valuable to the empire.
d. Sir Edmund Andros became governor of New England and united the colonies under his leadership.

44. Which statement about women in Puritan New England is TRUE?

a. Women were not considered important in society.
b. Women were expected to obey their husbands, but their roles were highly valued.
c. Women did most of the farming while men did most of the hunting.
d. Puritan teaching stressed that men and women should be equal in society.

45. What happened in 1697 that led to an expansion of slavery in the English colonies?

a. the discovery of tobacco
b. the discovery of gold
c. the end of the Royal African Company’s monopoly on the slave trade
d. the division of Massachusetts into a number of different colonies

46. What formed the legal basis for slavery in the English colonies?

a. slave codes
b. royal charters
c. the Mayflower Compact
d. the Dominion of New England

47. The Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s was

a. a conflict between Quakers and Puritans.
b. a conflict between old and new religious traditions.
c. an emphasis on science and logic.
d. a push for people learn how to read.

48. The Enlightenment emphasized

a. natural laws.
b. religious teachings.
c. emotion.
d. Catholic traditions.

49. Which colony developed a large class of landowners?

a. New Jersey
b. West Jersey
c. East Jersey
d. New York

50. The Dutch governor of New Netherland, from whom England acquired New York, was

a. James Oglethorpe.
b. Oliver Cromwell.
c. King Philip.
d. Peter Stuyvesant.

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