Alcohol Abuse and History Discussions & Replies

ALCOHOL ABUSE DISCUSSION & REPLIES

I need an original post that is at least 200 words responding to Part A. Then I need two student responses to post, at least 100 words, that can be found in Part B. Please respond to student response like you are talking to them directly. Do not say “ I agree with this student….this student’s use of …..etc…”

PART A

After completing this weeks readings discuss your views on lowering the legal limit for intoxication from .08 to .06 nationwide.

PART B
1
“This weeks topic of discussion is the question of reducing the legal drinking level from .08 to .06. I personally am in favor of it. I am because so many lives, especially young lives and innocent bystanders are losing their lives behind drunk driving. A recent study mentioned that lowering the alcohol level to 0.05 could actually save lives. The study further shows that reducing the limit to this level could reduce the number of deaths each year by 10 percent (Study: Lowering Legal Blood Alcohol Level to 0.05 Could Save Lives, n.d.). A alcohol level of .08% or higher Blood Alcohol heightens the chances for a person to have a be in or cause a fatal crash. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration predicts that 3 out of 10 Americans will suffer from an alcohol related incident but, could this be the answer to the problem of drinking and driving (Driving under the Influence, 2009). I find it ridiculous that nightclubs serve alcohol all night to patrons, with no cut off limit and even worse, when they notice that you are beyond wasted they have security remove you from their establishment. This says to me, drink, get drunk and as long as the profits come in anything outside of that is not our concern. I see so many people in the night life barely able to walk without stumbling but really have the unclear mind set to believe that they can operate a vehicle. No disrespect to anyone but the legal limit should not even be this big of an issue not drinking when you are the designated driver is more important to me. In all honesty, one glass of wine may give me a buzz and headache but another person could drink a bottle of wine and be fine. Speaking for myself, the body cannot predict how it will react to alcohol every time. Whether one’s legal alcohol level is .08 or .06 does that constitute that you are 100% coherent enough to function as if it was .00. I came across an article that is very sad about a couple in California who lost their 15 month old child in 2016 because he was struck by a drunk driver. They are fighting to have a bill, AB 1713, called Liam’s Law in honor of their son be implemented that would lower the legal influence to .05 percent blood-alcohol content from the current .08 percent. “Lowering the BAC limit to .05 percent has been shown to decrease DUI fatalities by serving as a deterrent to folks driving drunk in the first place.” California’s legal limit has been .08 since 1990. I am in favor of what they are trying to do. Maybe every one should consider imaging being in their shoes before putting down the suggested change.

References:

Driving under the Influence (DUI). (2009). In P. Korsmeyer, & H. R. Kranzler (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 38-39). Detriot, MI: Macmillan Reference USA. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/apps/doc/CX2699700166/GVRL?u=umd_umuc&sid=GVRL&xid=610da0c3

https://www.ocregister.com/2019/02/27/la-area-lawmaker-proposes-lower-blood-limit-for-drunk-driving-will-face-opposition/

2

“After reading this weeks material about driving while intoxicated, I do not believe that lowering the limit to a .06 from .08 would change things in regards to auto fatalities where alcohol has played a role. To reach a .08 the individual would have to have consumed roughly 3 12 ounce beers within a certain time period, so to reach a .06 that same individual would maybe need only 2 12 ounce beers (depending on different factors). I understand the concept of drinking and driving and how wrong it is, but to lower the limit seems as if that would be setting people up to fail. There have been many times where I have seen individuals out at dinner and they have had a few beers with their meal and got in the car and drove home. Those same individuals may have felt fine, but depending on what time frame they consumed the alcohol was, they could have been pulled over for a DWI if they blew .06 or better.

If this law were to pass, I personally do not believe that it would cause fatalities or even accidents where alcohol was involved to decrease. Statistics report that when people have been in an accident or charged with a DWI, they are blowing a BAC of much higher than a .06 or even a .08. To me, if you are going to get charged with a DWI at a .06, then you might as well never have a drink if you’re driving. If the consequences were more severe than people may choose a different route as opposed to drinking and driving, but that may not even be true. Murder can get you a death sentence, but people commit murder every day. We know it’s bad, we know it’s illegal and we know the consequences, but yet people continue to drink and drive. Lowering the limit would not stop that, it would just make it easier for the police to have just cause to punish you for 2 beers. With Uber and all those other resources to utilize, people still get DUI’s and I do not believe that lowering the BAC would be the solution to the problem.

References:

Driving under the Influence (DUI). (2009). In P. Korsmeyer & H. R. Kranzler (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 38-39). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/apps/doc/CX2699700166/GVRL?u=umd_umuc&sid=GVRL&xid=610da0c3

HISTORY DISCUSSION & REPLIES

I need an original post that is at least 200 words responding to Part A. Then I need two student responses to post, at least 100 words, that can be found in Part B. Please respond to student response like you are talking to them directly. Do not say “ I agree with this student….this student’s use of …..etc…”

PART A

Discuss the collapse of the Soviet Union. Consider the difference between rhetoric and action in the end of the Cold War.

PART B

1

“Discuss the key domestic issues in the US under Reagan and Bush. Explain the issues they were able to address, and which ones remained unsolved or in process when the Republican Presidency of 1981-1993 ended.

The key domestic issues in the United States under President Reagan were the economy and AIDs. “Reagan’s economic program had two major components: tax reductions and budget cuts, which took center stage, and monetary policy, which was as important but held a lower profile.”[1] He asked Congress to cut tax rates by 30% over the next few years and slim down the budget by $41 billion for next year.[2] However, Reagan also asked Congress to spend more money on defense. Large tax cuts, minimal budget cuts, plus increased defense spending equaled massive amounts of debt.[3] The Congress agreed to most of his tax cuts, but the Congress would not agree on the budget bill, but Congress turned it around when President Reagan got shot.[4] He survived, Congress voted on both bills, and most of his economic program was in place.[5] But then, the recession hit, and for a while President Reagan was at an all-time low in his presidency. Reagan “stayed the course” and a couple years later the economy was booming, but there was also the federal budget deficit that was ballooning.[6]

In mid-1980s, AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) hit the United States. “AIDS was a virus, transmitted through sexual contact, intravenous drug use, and blood transfusions that destroyed the human body’s immune system and left its victims defenseless against other diseases or viruses.”[7] President Reagan thought of it as measles, not a deadly disease.[8]Finally, after Rock Hudson had it, he finally understood, and in September 1985, “Reagan called fighting AIDS one of the administration’s “top priorities.”[9]

The key domestic in the United States under President Bush were the economy, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the Clean Air Act. President Bush took the office with his major promise being no taxes. He found himself in a sticky situation, juggling balancing the budget and reduce the deficit. He crumbled when he agreed to raise taxes, and the conservatives were upset and disappointed.[10]

“The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, which forbade discrimination based on disability in employment, public accommodations, and transportation.”[11] President Bush supported the bill and fought for it to be passed. When conservatives criticized the ADA for being to intrusive on the private sector, he pushed back and explain that people with disabilities would be less dependent on the government.[12] It was one of, if not the most, major domestic accomplishments in President Bush’s time in office.

Lastly, the Clean Air Act showed his support for the environment. In March 1989, the Exxon Valdez spilled oil in Alaska on Prince William Sound.[13]“The 1990 amendments focused on three aspects of clean air: reducing urban smog, curbing acid rain, and eliminating industrial emissions of toxic chemicals.”[14] Congress passed the bill with substantial support, and President Bush signed the act.[15]

References

Cannon, Lou. “Ronald Reagan: Domestic Affairs.” UVA, (n.d.): n.p. https://millercenter.org/president/reagan/domestic….

Knott, Stephen. “George H. W. Bush: Domestic Affairs.” UVA, (n.d.): n.p. https://millercenter.org/president/bush/domestic-a….


[1] Lou Cannon, “Ronald Reagan: Domestic Affairs,” UVA, (n.d.): n.p.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Stephen Knott, “George H. W. Bush: Domestic Affairs,” UVA, (n.d.): n.p.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Ibid.”

2

“Reagan’s term began in 1981 and he stated that “government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem”[1]. Initially, Reagan focused on the economy particularly tax reductions and budget cuts. Reagan’s administration recommended to Congress to decrease tax rates minimally over the next 3 years by 30% and to reduce the budget in the next year by $41 billion. At the same time, Reagan was recommending immense expansion in military spending. The largest components of the budget were entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicare and Reagan left them alone.

Reagan’s budget was unbalanced and caused a larger national debt. Luckily, Congress enacted most of Reagan’s proposals including increasing military expansion. Early in Reagans administration the priority was getting inflation under control. The Federal Reserve suggested that by tightening the nation’s money supply would reduce inflation and Reagan supported that initiative. Initially, this caused higher interest rates in money lending and hurt small business and middle-class Americans. All the economic changes brought about a 25% reduction in taxes over the next 3 years. However, in 1982, we entered into a recession. It was concluded that given the financial crisis Reagan inherited, it was inevitable that we would not be able to escape a recession.

One of Reagan’s early accomplishments was when the Air Traffic Controllers went on an illegal strike. Many believed this would bring air traffic to a stop. The air traffic controllers were ordered back to work and when they refused Reagan fired them. This action was perceived that Reagan was a strong leader and a clear message to Corporate America to deal with organized labor more steadfastly.

In 1982 and the 1983 time frame, the Reagan administration and Secretary of the Interior Watts angered environmentalists who opposed changes to legislation on the environment. Luckily, none of the changes were ever passed and Watts resigned in October 1983.

In 1983, the recession came to an end, inflation was under control and the US experienced a financial bang that was extraordinary. The GNP increased by 3.6% in 1983 and 6.8% in 1984. Unemployment came down significantly over the next few years as well, The Reagan boom brought more people out of poverty than any other boom since WW2. Unfortunately, when the economy increased so did the “government budget deficits and the national debt”[2]. Reagan’s 2nd term in office continued to experience the “economic boom” [3] significantly and unemployment continued to decline.

The most significant domestic accomplishment of the Reagan administration was the Tax Reform Act of 1986. In summary, it reduced the top tax rate of ordinary income from 50% to 28% and increased the bottom tax rate from 11% to 15%. Reagan described this act as “fairness, growth, and simplicity in the tax code”[4]. This eliminated many of the loopholes that corporations and individuals utilized.

By the mid 1980’s, a health epidemic had developed known as AIDS. It was a virus that was passed through sexual contact and there was no cure. In September 1985, Reagan announced one of his top priorities was fighting AIDS. By 1989, the Federal government was spending “$2.3 billion a year on research and AIDS prevention”[5].

Reagan’s VP, George HW Bush became the next President after Reagan left office. Despite a robust economy, the Federal deficit was $2.8 trillion which was 3 times larger than when Reagan entered office in 1981. Bush felt given the deficit, that his objectives were limited, and they were “volunteerism, education reform, and anti-drug efforts”[6].

One of Bush’s campaign commitments was not to increase taxes, but he had a difficult time keeping that campaign promise given the deficit he inherited. After a brief shutdown and Bush vetoing Congress’s budget, Bush negotiated with Congress and they developed the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 which included Bush reneging on his campaign promise as the bill included tax increases.

In this same time frame, the Savings and Loan industry was failing due to deregulation from the 1970’s and unsafe investments. Bush developed a plan to save the S&L but it cost the American taxpayer $100 billion.

Finally, Bush enacted two significant laws during his administration. The first was Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 which prohibited bigotry based on disability within employment, public lodging and transportation. The Clean Air Act was the 2nd piece of legislation passed and in the same time frame the Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground and spilled over 10 million gallons in Alaska.

During the Reagan and Bush administrations, the economy was booming, interest rates were lower, our military was strong, but a significant deficit was created. At the end of the Bush administration, he was regarded as “breaking his promise not to raise taxes and not cutting military spending”[7] as the deficit was still out of control.

[1] https://millercenter.org/president/reagan/domestic…

[2] https://millercenter.org/president/reagan/domestic…

[3] https://millercenter.org/president/reagan/domestic…

[4] https://millercenter.org/president/reagan/domestic…

[5] https://millercenter.org/president/reagan/domestic…

[6] “George H. W. Bush: Domestic Affairs.” Miller Center. August 01, 2017. Accessed February 27, 2019. https://millercenter.org/president/bush/domestic-a….

[7] “George H. W. Bush: Impact and Legacy.” Miller Center. August 01, 2017. Accessed February 27, 2019. https://millercenter.org/president/bush/impact-and-legacy.”

 
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