I have attached the questions please answer them, it is 100 questions. The questions are also below.

Soc 3230

Final Exam (Chapters 10-14)

Study Guide

Dr. Perry

1. The term “aging” can be divided into distinguishing between external or environmentally. What is the term that refers to normal or expected aging?

2. The term “aging” can be divided into distinguishing between external or environmentally. What is the term that refers to caused aging?

3. The term “aging” can be divided into distinguishing between external or environmentally. What is the term that refers to decline seen just prior to death?

4. As our bodies age, men tend to evaluate their bodies in terms of how they __________ while women tend to focus more on __________.

5. Everyone loses some height as he/she ages. About how many inches will the average adult lose in height between young adulthood and the young-old age of around 70 years old?

6. Like many other areas of primary aging, skin changes that become noticeable in midlife actually began in our _________.

7. What is the dermatological term for aging caused by sun exposure?

8. Graying and thinning hair are ____________.

9. Which of the following common eye pathologies is known by its clouded eye lens that is similar to trying to look through a fogged-up window?

10. While hearing aids can help in many situations, they are often rejected by older adults because of _____________________.

11. Of the following factors, what changes in the body may increase the risk that older adults will eat less and suffer from malnutrition?

12. With age, our hearts become enlarged, slow in beating rate, and lessen in muscle flexibility. This generally results in _______________________.

13. What term describes the attitude that healthiest or most appropriate sexual practices are those of heterosexuals, so evident in early sexuality research?

14. In sexuality research, participants may withhold the truth and give what they believe to be socially appropriate responses because honest responses could be ____________________.

15. Generally speaking, most young adults are heterosexual, engage frequently in ___________________.

16. Some women in middle age may find the menopausal process, highlighted by hot flashes and vaginal dryness, to be ultimately liberating and requiring minor adjustment, whereas others may have such difficulty with the process that they eventually develop ___________________.

17. Most middle-aged men will experience ______________ and the related symptoms including problems with sleeping, memory, and concentration, as well as depression, anxiety, irritability, loss of energy, and bone and hair loss.

18. There is evidence that sexual activity continues on some level for many people into their ________________________.

19. Beginning in young adulthood, researchers found that 98% of the men and 80% of the women reported extradyadic fantasies, which is_______________________, during the previous 2 months.

20. ___________ refers to the symptoms involved in making a diagnosis.

21. ____________ refers to the side effects and related problems.

22. Which of the following groups were twice as likely to rate their health very good or excellent, with much of the difference also related to socioeconomic status.

23. Martha is a woman in late adulthood. Research seems to suggest that, to reduce symptoms of poor health, Martha is more likely to _______________________________.

24. An Jung Parker is a man in late adulthood. Research seems to suggest that to reduce symptoms of poor health An Jung is more likely to _________________________.

25. What is the leading cause of death among women and men in the U.S.?

26. Which of the following is NOT a major symptom of a heart attack for men and

women?

27. Along with the typical heart attack signs, women often report all of the

symptoms below EXCEPT:

28. ____________ is also a factor in that well over half of all strokes occur to adults

over age 65.

29. Which Type of diabetes is more common, sometimes milder and slower to

develop?

30. Of those students who are still alive, what percentage of the 1945 graduating

class, of any given college or university might have Alzheimer’s disease

today?

31. What is the most significant risk factor for Alzheimer’s?

32. Women are more likely to be diagnosed with what types of anxiety

disorders?

33. Using the DSM-IV categories, which are the most common psychological

disorders in the United States?

34. Aging is not, by itself, a cause of major depressive disorder (NIMH, 2009). Rather than simply focusing on advancing age, it may be that some of the psychosocial changes that accompany aging (Yang, 2007) prompt depressive episodes. Which of the following best illustrates this concept?

35. The Hershey Company is cutting more jobs in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Sara Stoltzfus held one of 80 positions Hershey eliminated at the local Y and S Candies plant. The plant, which has 520 workers, manufactures Twizzlers licorice. Sara, a single mother of two, decided to create a “game-plan” during the time she collects unemployment that includes reducing her expenses while looking for work. Sara’s coping strategy is best described as using:

36. It has been 6 months since police found Jayahn Pritchard, a three-year-old boy, drowned in a stream behind his home. His grandmother, Lucretia Thomas, was grief-stricken, but has since taken to a speaker’s circuit advising parents and grandparents on child safety issues. Ms. Thomas stated that her new passion puts Jayahn’s death into perspective, and helps heal the pain by talking about the incident so others may live. Lucretia’s coping strategy is best described as using:

37. Developmental regulation offers a strategy for maintaining a sense of personal control over our situation, which is likely to contribute to successful aging. What type of control is illustrated in the following scenario: An older adult who rearranges items in her kitchen so that she does not have to bend her knees or get on the floor to get frequently used items is exerting ________________.

38. Developmental regulation offers a strategy for maintaining a sense of personal control over our situation, which is likely to contribute to successful aging. What type of control is illustrated in the following scenario: An older adult who realizes that his physical abilities are changing such that he has trouble maintaining his home may start imagining himself as a resident in an assisted living center. He may shift his identity by thinking of himself as among the youngest and most vibrant of those in the center, thus having some advantages the other residents do not have.

39. According to the _____________________ older adults are encouraged to cope by regulating their emotional responses, primarily by limiting their social interactions to those that are positive and supportive.

40. The _____________ is well suited as a coping strategy for older adults who are adjusting to limited resources and abilities.

41. Maude, a 79-year-old widow, met Harold, a much younger divorcee, at her town’s Heritage Days’ social. At first, Maude thought that Harold would be a great date to enjoy a dinner and a movie with, but soon after their first “date,” Harold began critiquing Maude’s cooking and cleaning efforts, and was forever looking at the world [almost any subject] with “half-empty” glasses. In less than a month, Maude decided that she did not want to be around such negative energy, so she dumped Harold. Maude’s encounter may be best described to fit under the umbrella of which theory or model?

42. Once E.J. received a diagnosis of esophageal cancer, he mobilized. First, he decided to re-prioritize his life and become a cancer survivor. Second, he spent some time and energy to see what was his options and alternatives. Luckily, he found a local support group and an online community that helped identify and share resources. Lastly, he knew that he would need to swallow his pride and ask others for help. E.J. decided on the radiation seed treatment and as such he would lose some of his independent ways, at least temporarily. So he asked his neighbor to take him in for doctor’s visits and treatments. E.J.’s situation may be best described to fit under the umbrella of which theory or model?

43. Environmental gerontology is the study of ______________________________.

44. Of the following factors, select the one that motivates older adults to use technology, especially the Internet.

45. Of the following profiles and according to your text, who is more likely to be a caregiver to an older adult?

46. A significant aspect of Fowler’s theory of faith development is that it is one of the few models of ___________________________________.

47. ______________ is considered a multidimensional construct involving fears of many death related factors, including the dying process, moment of death, situation of our body and our spirit after death, and simply the unknown beyond this life, both for ourselves and for others.

48. In a survey of over 400 adults between 18 and 87 years old Russac et al. (2007) found, as expected, that death anxiety reached its highest levels in _________________________________.

49. One factor that is often speculated to make a difference in death anxiety is

religiosity and spirituality. What are the research findings concerning these

factors?

50. Of the following, select the one(s) that is/are advance directive(s).

51. Bullock (2006) found which race and ethnic groups had fewer advance

directives, results consistent with previous research.

52. Most hospice care takes place in _____________________.

53. The decision to begin hospice care is a difficult one. One of the first requirements is a medical professional’s prognosis that a patient has 6 months or less to live (Merck, 2007). Hospice care may be postponed for which of the following reasons?

54. Which of the following concepts allows a “nature to take its course” approach, allowing someone to succumb to the disease process or a related life-ending complication?

55. In an Oregon hospital, Daniel pleaded with Jose, his partner of 35 years, to get him some pills, so he could put an end to his pain and misery as AIDs slowly and agonizingly progressed through his body. Frustrated, Jose asks the doctor to do something about Daniel’s request to end his pain and suffering, and hasten death. Hesitatingly, the doctor prescribes a significantly higher dosage of morphine. Which of the following concepts best describes this behavior?

56. Jamal, a patient with ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease), was frightened that the advancing disease would cause him to die a horrible death in the near future; he wanted a quick, painless exit from life. So his attending physician obliged his request, injecting controlled substances into the patient, thus causing his death. Which of the following concepts best describes this behavior?

57. One month after her thigh muscle surgery, the doctor gave Rita, a 72-year-old woman, diagnosed with a muscle sarcoma on her thigh, 6 months to a year to live after he found that her cancer had metastasized to her lungs. Rita had never stopped praying for a miracle, but after 5 months of chemo treatment, she requested a stop to all treatments, except for pain management. Feeling the effects of her disease and the tumors’ growth, Rita asked her visiting nurse about hospice, and requested to live, as comfortably as possible, her remaining days in her home without any extraordinary measures. Rita wanted to be surrounded by friends, family, and all things familiar. Which of the following concepts best describes this behavior?

58. Friends and loved ones who do spend a significant amount of time with someone who is dying will notice changes as death approaches. Often persons who are dying will display which of the following behaviors.

59. For most Americans, immediately after losing someone close to us, what might bring about or facilitate closure on the past and mark the beginning of a new chapter in life?

60. The recent trend in self-concept research has been

_____________________________________________.

61. Assimilation involves _________________________.

62. Accommodation involves _________________________________.

63. When a young boy in preschool received a puppy for his birthday, his teacher asked him if the puppy was a boy or a girl; he looked at me in a confused way and said, “Dogs are boys and cats are girls.” He was in the process of building his schemas of boy-things and girl-things. This is illustrative of which of the following concepts.

64. When a young boy in preschool he received a puppy for his birthday, his teacher asked him if the puppy was a boy or a girl he looked at me in a confused way and said, “Dogs are boys and cats are girls.” He was in the process of building his schemas of boy-things and girl-things. At some point after his teacher’s conversation, he realized that dogs can be girls too, thus changing his schema accordingly. This is illustrative of which of the following concept.

65. _____________ refer/refers to the structure or framework people use to cluster or network together complex information about themselves (Markus, 1977).

67. Consider a middle-aged man who has been a well-respected high school teacher for over 20 years. His self-schema includes the characteristics of “outstanding” and “experienced” teacher. When a student gets upset at this man after receiving a bad grade, telling the teacher “You’re the worst teacher in the school,” this man can easily dismisses the comment. He knows better, and this assertion does not fit his self-schema. This is illustrative of which of the following concept.

68. Suppose our experienced male teacher is also a faithful husband who finds out that his wife is having an affair, and after confronting her with the information, she states that she wants a divorce. Consider how his self-schema may change in the midst of this traumatic experience. He is forced by the situation to eliminate those characteristics that do not fit anymore, such as “happily married” and perhaps even “trusting.” He must begin to incorporate some new characteristics into his self-schema, such as “divorced” and, at least for a while, “suspicious of others.” This is illustrative of which of the following concept.

69. After many years of research, Coopersmith (1967) concluded that most people determine their self-esteem based on four areas of life:

70. Robins, Trzesniewski, Tracy, Gosling, and Potter (2002) found in a sample of over 300,000 participants ranging in age from 9 to 90 years old that as a whole group, most of the participants displayed high self-esteem. When comparing by age groups, who displayed the lowest levels of esteem?

71. _______________, introduced by well-known psychologist Albert Bandura, refers to our beliefs about our abilities, and thus our expectations regarding success at a task or effectiveness in an area of life.

72. According to Bandura (1989, 1993), there are four primary influences on _____________; level of success in past experiences, observing others’ experiences, advice from others, and emotions related to the behaviors.

73. Whereas self-efficacy is focused on one’s prediction of success or failure in particular areas of life, possible selves reflect a general image of what we believe ________________.

74. Abraham Maslow, a well-known humanistic psychologist, promoted the concept of _____________ as a key motivator in human nature.

75. When the field of lifespan developmental psychology began to thrive, and with it the study of young, middle, and late adulthood, the area of _________________was developed. Rather than creating a new stage of more complex logical reasoning, ________________are generally described as a series of stages that emphasize the integration of emotions, social context, paradoxes, intuition, and subjectivity with logical and abstract processing, as well as highlighting the many uncertainties and unknowns that are often a part of major life situations.

76. “Claims processors in an insurance company shows that effective practice—at both the individual and group level—is bound up in the acquisition and exercise of patterns that recur in the endless flow of claim forms (e.g., which claims look problematic and so should be put aside for later in the workday). They learn shortcuts and “work arounds” that allow them to meet their production quotas without substantively compromising quality. Moreover, they participate in a “community of practice” distributing across individuals such that no single individual needs to know everything (adapted from Joseph A. Horvath).” The aforementioned process is an example of __________________________________.

77. Sternberg calls his theory the balance theory because he believes that wisdom involves balancing sets of interests, specifically, balancing Intrapersonal (self interests) with ____________________________.

78. Baltes and his colleagues believe that wisdom includes several key elements, specifically good insights into the issue or dilemma requiring a wise response, factual and procedural knowledge, and knowledge of the context, values, and uncertainties of life. The theory is known as:

79. Which of the following statements demonstrate one or more of the top five listed and ranked regrets uncovered in research meta-analysis?

80. People with low self-esteem tend to create negative meaning from neutral events.

81. Researchers find that by watching others we develop a sense of our own chances of succeeding at a particular task.

82. Researchers find that individuals’ image of their ideal selves change throughout adulthood.

83. Life satisfaction is strongly associated with personality characteristics.

84. Life satisfaction is higher among people who are married.

85. People have more regrets related to their education than they do regarding their career or romantic life

86. Most researchers see “self ” as a unified concept and approach it that way.

87. Researchers find that people that are continually reinventing and adjusting their identity and sense of self have the highest life satisfaction.

88. Morals or values tend to be separate from self-esteem.

89. Researchers have found that having strong belief that one can succeed in an area is not related to one’s performance in that area.

90. The goal of wisdom is to develop a sophisticated way of thinking such that there are no contradictions, paradoxes, or gaps in understanding.

91. Differences in subjective (personally determined) well-being are large when comparing various racial/ethnic groups.

92. People have more intense regret over actions taken that turned out to be poor choices than they do over opportunities they didn’t take.

93. Hispanic Americans report less illness than African Americans.

94. Among the top 10 causes of death for Americans, more people die of cardiovascular disease and cancer than the other eight causes combined.

95. Cold sweat, nausea, and light-headedness are some of the symptoms of a heart attack.

96. Early symptoms of cancer generally don’t cause pain.

97. Some strokes are so mild that the symptoms are undetected or ignored.

98. Adults who are recovering from a stroke often have trouble speaking, reading, and writing.

99. American Indians have one of the highest rates of diabetes in the world.

100. Diabetes can cause blindness.

 
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