1) Describe the two major approaches (observational and experiemental) used in analytic studies. What circumstances would merit use of eiher of these approaches?

2) List the seven factors that characterize study designs and explain each one.

3) Define the term case control study and describe how to calculate an odds ratio.

4) Define the term cohort study. what measure of association is used in a cohort study?

5) Interpret the following values for an odds ratio (OR) and a relative risk (RR):

a. OR = 1.0; OR = 0.5; OR = 2.0

b. RR = 1.0; RR = 0.5; RR = 2.0

6) Define what is meant by bias in epidemiological studies. GIve an example of the four types of bias.

7) Construct a grid that compares the advantages and disadvantages of the following study designs: ecologic, case-control, and cohort.

8) A hypothetical cohort study of pesticides exposure and cancer followed exposed pesticide workers and a comparision of non-exposed employees of the same company over a 30-year period. Researchers found that the incidence of cancer among exposed workers was 55.3 per 1,000. In the comparison cohort not exposed to pesticides, the incidence of cancer was 15.7 per 1,000. Calcultate the relative and attributable risks of exposure to pesticides and development of cancer. (Show all of your work for full credit).

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