The Crusades were an important event during the Middle Ages. The implications of the Crusades were far-reaching– religion, politics, warfare, gender roles, geography, culture and society– all were in some way influenced by the Crusades during this period.

In this second essay assignment you will use the primary source documents provided, as well as the secondary source, The First Crusade by Peter Frankopen, to write an essay that deals with the Crusades and how it played a role in shaping medieval Europe. This essay will be 3-4 pages in length (approximately 900-1000 words) Your essay should focus on answering the following questions:

1) What were the Crusades?

2) What was the purpose of the Crusades? Give some of the background information.

3) Who participated? Why were men (and women) so willing to become involved in these events? What was the appeal and what was the benefit?

4) What was the desired outcome of the Crusades? Was this goal realized?

Notes:

* You may use your textbook for general or background information but the textbook should not play a prominent role in your * You must focus on the information in the provided primary sources. This is your “proof” and the evidence you need to use to support any of your * You must use citations in the Turabian style (footnotes or * Do not use first or second person. Stay in past tense throughout.

* Review all general essay
The minimum length for the Essay will be 3-4 pages (approximately 950 words). Sources used for the Essay Assignment are provided within iCollege. Outside sources may not be used. Essays should be original and formal citations are required. The required format for citations is Turabian.

Required Textbook for HIST 1111 :

William J. Duiker and Jackson Spielvogel, World History, Volume I: To 1800 “Advantage Edition” (Eighth edition). ISBN: 9781305091726

Evolution of Crusader Privileges- ((CAN SENT IT )

Urban II Speech at Council of Clermont (CAN SENT IT )

Citations

1) Ekkehard ofAurach, On the Opening of the First Crusade. Trans by James Harvey Robinson ed., Readings in European History: Vol. I: (Boston:: Ginn and co., 1904), pp.316-318. Internet Medieval Sourcebook, (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/), Feb. 1996, p. #.

2) Fulcher of Chartes, Urban II: Speech at Council of Clermont, 1095, trans in Oliver J. Thatcher, and Edgar Holmes McNeal, eds., A Source Book for Medieval History, (New York: Scribners, 1905), 513-17. Internet Medieval Sourcebook, (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall), Dec. 1997, p. #.

3) St. Bernard of Clairvaux, In Praise of the New Knighthood. Trans by Conrad Greenia. ORB Online Encyclopedia, (http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/bernard.html), p.#.

4) Pope John VIII, Indulgence for Fighting the Heathen, 878. trans. Oliver J. Thatcher, and Edgar Holmes McNeal, eds., A Source Book for Medieval History, (New York: Scribners, 1905), 512. Internet Medieval Sourcebook. (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall), Mar. 1996, p. #.

5) Leo IV, Forgiveness of Sins for Those Who Die in Battle with the Heathen. trans. Oliver J. Thatcher, and Edgar Holmes McNeal, eds., A Source Book for Medieval History, (New York: Scribners, 1905), 511-12. Internet Medieval Sourcebook. (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall), Mar. 1996.

6) Gregory VII, Call for a “Crusade.” trans. Oliver J. Thatcher, and Edgar Holmes McNeal, eds., A Source Book for Medieval History, (New York: Scribners, 1905), 512-13. Internet Medieval Sourcebook, (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall), Mar. 1996, p. #.

7) Dana C. Munro, “Evolution of Crusader Privileges, 1095-1270.” Internet Medieval Sourcebook (December 1997). In “Urban and the Crusaders,” Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History, Vol. 1:2 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1895), p. #.

 
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