Please respond to these discussion posts
Robert Azario posted Mar 28, 2019 11:47 PM
Bronx New York, 1972. The Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) for Bronx, New York in 1972 was 20.4. For all of New York City that year the rate was 19.8 ( Vital and Services Statistics Health Center Districts, New York City,1975). In 2016, the last year that statistics are available for, Bronx New York had an IMR of 5.64% (New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2016). That obviously represents a 72% drop in their infant mortality rate in 47 years. A long time to be sure, but an impressive achievement nonetheless. The IMR rate for all of New York City in 2016 was a record low for them at 4.1. That represents an 80% drop in the IMR in 47 years.
Lower Infant Mortality Rates can usually be attributed to better physician’s training, advances in hospital equipment, and surgical procedures, pharmaceutical discoveries, education, increased accessibility to healthcare and overall better prenatal care. If there are notable rises in the Infant Mortality Rate, especially after steady decreases, then one can often look at epidemics as one of the leading causes. The epidemics can be in the form of drugs or diseases such as HIV. Oftentimes, the two are related. There was an AIDS epidemic involving intravenous heroin users in the 1980’s. They, in turn, caused an epidemic of what were at the time called AIDS babies. They were born with AIDS because they’re mothers were infected with the virus, usually via intravenous drug use. In other parts of the world epidemics of diseases oftentimes increase the IMR in a particular region.
We’ve certainly come a long way in 47 years, but we still have a long way to go, especially if we consider the worldwide Infant Mortality Rates.
Vital and Services Statistics Health Center Districts, New York City. (1975, April 01). VITAL STATISTICS. Retrieved March 28, 2019, fromhttps://www1.nyc.gov/assets/doh/downloads/pdf/vs/1972sum.pdf
New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. (2016). SUMMARY OF VITAL STATISTICS 2016 THE CITY OF NEW YORK. Retrieved from https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/doh/downloads/pdf/vs/2016sum.pdf
Sharon Woolley posted Mar 28, 2019 9:51 PM
People get their perceptions of health care,doctors,hospitals and preventative care in several different ways. A persons first impression would be from family and childhood experiences. If a child comes from a family in poverty they may not be used to seeing their parents ever going to a doctor and later do not go themselves. They may think it is for the people who can afford it and not them. Cultures have different ideas of health care as well. Some people may distrust doctors because of their religious beliefs or hearing their and learning their parent`s distrust. Some people may have had bad experiences with doctors and have come to distrust that way. For example, someone with a mental illness may have been discriminated against or talked down to. Someone with an addiction may not trust the medical field because most doctors do not understand addiction and blame the addict. Fear of the medical organization is another detriment to care. This could be caused by lack of education, ignorance and false beliefs. Their are a lot of parents who do not vaccinate their children for various reasons and distrust being one possibility. There was a rumor going around saying children get autism or sick from vaccines and today there are outbreaks of measles in some states.
Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior: Overlooked risk factors in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?
Sharon Gavin posted Mar 26, 2019 10:56 AM
The risk factor that I identified that is associated with poor health or adverse health outcomes is physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. The absence of any physical activity is one of the major public health issues. There are two main sedentary behaviors which are prolong statutory sitting and laying down. These behaviors are associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease(Pinto, et al., 2017). The risk factors may be led to predisposed health outcomes.
One of the things that I learned regarding physical activity is the required amount recommended by many health organizations, such as the American Heart Association, are the same or similar. It is recommended that adults age 18 – 64, engage in a minimum of 30 minutes of moderate physical activity for 5 days a week. This is supposed to help reduce the risk of certain chronic diseases. I feel that today there are things that deter the younger generation from achieving the recommended physical activity, such as cell phones and video games.
Pinto, A. J., Roschel, H., Pinto, A. L., Lima, F. R., Pereira, R. M., Silva, C. A., . . . Gualano, B. (2017). Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior: Overlooked risk factors in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?Autoimmunity Reviews, 16(7), 667-674. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2017.05.001
Jacqueline Borrego posted Mar 30, 2019 1:33 PM
Risk and leading causes of death in the U.S.
There are many leading causes of death in the U.S. Ranging from cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and strokes. The number one cause of death in the United States has been cardiovascular disease (CVD) for over the last 100 years. Dhadse, Gattani, and Mishra (2010) states that there are 12 million cases of CVD in the US and these cases are accountable for 30% of all deaths in the US yearly. Many risk factors such as obesity, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, and heredity are contributing factors to cardiovascular disease. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that the expenditures for coronary heart disease in the U.S. is $108.9 billion dollars per. CVD affects most ethnicities including African Americans, Hispanics, and Caucasians, but I was surprised to learn that for American Indians or Alaska Natives and Asians or Pacific Islanders, heart disease is second only to cancer. That leads me to believe that nutrition is yet another risk factor for CVD. I feel that I am at risk for CVD, because of my ethnic background. Being of a Latin decent we are accustomed to eating fried foods that are high in fat and carbs. I am a second generation Hispanic American and can already see the different measures that we are taking to reduce the risk factors. The biggest difference is our diet, we definitely eat healthier and strive to make better choices.
Dhadse, P., Gattani, D., & Mishra, R. (2010). The link between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease: How far we have come in last two decades?, Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, 14(3), 148-154. doi:10.4103/0972-124X.75908