1. The name of the noted researcher who first described the body’s reaction to stress is A. Robert Sapolsky. B. Carol Shively. C. Walter Cannon. D. Sir Michael Marmot.

2. The body’s stress reaction that includes an increase in heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol is called A. fight-or-flight. B. eustress. C. intense stress. D. distress.

3. Stimuli with the potential to cause stress are collectively called A. eustress. B. intense stress. C. distress. D. stressors.

4. The General Adaptation Syndrome has three stages, which are, in order: A. alarm reaction, stage of exhaustion, stage of resistance. B. alarm reaction, stage of resistance, stage of exhaustion. C. stage of resistance, alarm reaction, stage of exhaustion. D. stage of resistance, stage of exhaustion, alarm reaction.

5. Eustress is defined as A. bad things to which we have to adapt. B. everything that happens around us. C. good things to which we have to adapt. D. having a positive outlook on life.

6. Enjoyable, stimulating stress is often A. of short duration. B. experienced in a setting that feels relatively safe. C. experienced in a setting where we feel we still have some control. D. all of the above.

7. Distress is defined as A. bad things to which we have to adapt. B. everything that happens around us. C. good things to which we have to adapt. D. having a negative outlook on life

8. What is another term for “breathing deeply into the lungs and feeling the belly expand”? A. meditating. B. diaphragmatic breathing. C. imagery. D. autogenic training.

9. In both baboons and British civil servants, researchers suggest that individuals’ health is related to A. their access to health care. B. how much they exercise. C. their position in the social hierarchy. D. how much junk food they eat.

10. In non-human primates such as wild baboons and captive macaque monkeys, a great deal of stress is caused by A. other members of their group that are higher in the social hierarchy. B. being chased by predators. C. a shortage of food. D. human interference.

11. One relaxation technique that is always available to us, anywhere and at any time, is: A. using biofeedback technology. B. focusing on our breathing. C. listening to instrumental music. D. taking a nap.

12. People under chronic stress, such as mothers of children with a disability, age approximately how many times faster than people who are not under such stress? A. about 4 times faster B. about 6 times faster. C. about 10 times faster. D. there is no difference in the rate of aging.

13. Injecting a depressed person with dopamine may not help the person feel better because A. the human brain needs to have enough dopamine receptor sites to process dopamine. B. everyone responds the same way to dopamine, regardless of their stress level. C. chronic depression can reduce the number of dopamine receptor sites in the brain. D. both A and C.

14. Which of the following is not one of the stages of body scanning? A. noticing which parts of our bodies are tense. B. noticing which parts of our bodies are relaxed. C. trying to transfer the feeling of relaxation from the relaxed parts to the tense parts. D. focusing on the sounds around us.

15. Which of the following is NOT important in most relaxation techniques? A. focusing on our breathing. B. re-focusing on our breathing if we get distracted. C. evaluating whether we are doing a “good job” or a “bad job” staying focused. D. practicing the technique consistently, even for just a few minutes a day.

16. Some of the physiological changes that can occur under chronic stress include A. Weight gain. B. Telomere damage. C. Diabetes. D. All of the above.

17. Signs and symptoms of tension in the body include A. body feeling stiff. B. difficulty sitting comfortably. C. aches or pain in the neck, head, and/or jaw. D. all of the above.

18. All of the following are appropriate stress management goals, except A. to maintain the quality and energy of our life. B. to use stress to motivate peak performance. C. to eliminate all stress. D. to limit the harmful effects of stress.

19. In her TED talk, “Your Body Language Shapes Who You Are”, Amy Cuddy suggests that A. we can reprogram our brains by standing or sitting in different positions. B. we should “fake it till we become it”. C. tiny tweaks lead to big changes. D. all of the above.

20. According to Amy Cuddy in her TED talk, A. your body language can influence whether interviewers want to hire you. B. your body language can influence how you feel about yourself at any given moment. C. your body language can affect the balance of hormones in your body. D. all of the above.

Part 2. True/False (2 points each) Mark “A” for True and “B” for False

21. According to Robert Sapolsky and other researchers, lower social status is linked with higher levels of physical problems such as high blood pressure.

22. Chronic stress affects the reproductive system.

23. Chronic stress does not affect the immune system.

24. Chronic stress can be more harmful to our health than major life changes.

25. Stress can be useful, stimulating, and welcome.

26. Our stress levels are not related to how, or where, we gain extra body fat.

27. Dr. Carol Shively reported that the arteries of stressed macaque monkeys showed a greater cholesterol buildup than did the arteries of non-stressed monkeys.

28. There does not seem to be any relation between stress levels and socio-economic status (SES). 29. If my mind wanders during a relaxation technique and I can’t maintain our focus, there is no point in trying to continue with the technique; it’s just a waste of time.

30. If a woman is in her 30’s, but her telomeres show a level of damage more commonly seen in a 60- year-old, her telomeres are a more reliable indicator of how quickly her body is aging.

 
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