Directions: Answer two of the following three questions. You are allotted 500 words for each question (1000 words total for the whole exam). Do not repeat material across questions. You do not need an introduction or a conclusion. Please include a word-count at the end of each answer and use double-spacing.
You are not required to use quotations, but if you do, then you must (a) cite the author and page number at the end of the sentence, e.g., (Schiller 4, Nietzsche 66, etc.), and (b) use the quotations sparingly: no quotations over 1 line are allowed. It is more important that you put the arguments in your own words. You should not use any resources other than the primary texts assigned in class and your lecture notes. Your essays ought to be free of grammatical errors.
Remember: a good objection is one that is specific and that offers reasons and arguments, instead of unsubstantiated opinions. Question 1: The Categorical Imperative Two of Kant’s most important formulations of the categorical imperative are the Formula of Universal Law (FUL) and the Formula of the Law of Nature (FLN). In this question, you are to explore these formulations. To do so, (a) explain FUL in your own words. (b) Explain how Kant thinks we can ‘test’ the morality of a maxim in light of FLN. Be sure to explain how this relates to Kant’s discussion of contradictions in conception and contradictions in willing. (c) Develop two original1 examples of an immoral maxim, one that involves a contradiction in conception and one that involves a contradiction in willing, and explain why a contradiction is involved in each case. (d) Raise an objection to one aspect of Kant’s account of FUL or FLN.
Question 2: The Origin of Duty A key component of both Kant and Nietzsche’s analysis of morality is their account of the origin of the concept of duty. In this question, you are to compare and contrast their positions. To do so, (a) present and explain the account of duty that Kant presents in Chapter One of the Groundwork, (b) present and explain the account of duty that Nietzsche offers in Essay Two of the Genealogy, (c) compare and contrast their positions on duty, and (d) raise an objection to one aspect of either Kant’s or Nietzsche’s accounts of duty.
Question 3: What Drives the Human Being One thing that Schiller and Nietzsche share in common is their emphasis on the importance of the volitional forces that drive the human being. Schiller calls these forces ‘impulses’ and Nietzsche calls these ‘wills’, and in this question you are to compare and contrast their accounts of these motivational forces. To do so, you should (a) present and explain Schiller’s account of the three impulses that drive a human being, (b) present and explain Nietzsche’s account of the will to power, (c) compare and contrast their conception of these basic motivational forces, and (d) raise an objection to one aspect of either Schiller’s or Nietzsche’s accounts of these motivational forces.