Item 1

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Memory is given a prominent role in the learning process. Learning results when information is stored in memory in an organized, meaningful manner. Teachers/designers are responsible for assisting learners in organizing that information in some optimal way. Designers use techniques such as advance organizers, analogies, hierarchical relationships, and matrices to help learners relate new information to prior knowledge. Forgetting is the inability to retrieve information from memory because of interference, memory loss, or missing or inadequate cues needed to access information.

References:
Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-71.

Memory takes an important role in the process of learning. Learning occurs when information is integrated into student memory in a structured and meaningful way. Teachers can help students learn by arranging that information in useful ways. Advance organizers could be used to assist learners to connect existing knowledge to new knowledge.

References:
Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-71.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 2

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a desperate need for theorists and researchers to generate and refine a new breed of learning-focused instructional design theories that help educators and trainers to meet those needs, (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity). The health of instructional-design theory also depends on its ability to involve stakeholders in the design process.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

We “need theorists and researchers to generate and refine learning-focused instructional design theories….” Such theories will “help educators and trainers to meet those needs … that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity.”

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 3

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a desperate need for theorists and researchers to generate and refine a new breed of learning-focused instructional design theories that help educators and trainers to meet those needs, (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity). The health of instructional-design theory also depends on its ability to involve stakeholders in the design process.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Reigeluth (1999) maintains that we “need theorists and researchers to generate and refine learning-focused instructional design theories….” Such theories will “help educators and trainers to meet those needs (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity)” (p. 27).

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 4

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a design methodology called rapid prototyping, which has been used successfully in software engineering. Given similarities between software design and instructional design, we argue that rapid prototyping is a viable method for instructional design, especially for computer-based instruction.

References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.

Rapid prototyping could be an advantageous methodology for developing innovative computer-based instruction. Software engineers have been successful in designing applications by using rapid prototyping. So it also could be an efficient way to do instructional design.

References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 5

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Cobbling together elements from the previous definition and whittling away the unnecessary bits leaves us with the following definitions: A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome. This definition structurally resembles that of Avedon and Sutton-Smith, but contains concepts from many of the other authors as well.

References:
Salen, K., & Zimmerman, E. (2004). Rules of play: Game design fundamentals. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Salen and Zimmerman (2004) reviewed many of the major writers on games and simulations and synthesized the following definitions: “A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome” (p. 80). They contended that some simulations are not games but that most games are some form of simulation.

References:
Salen, K., & Zimmerman, E. (2004). Rules of play: Game design fundamentals. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

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Item 6

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

In a complex task such as creating a website for learning, instructors may want to support the generation of multiple solutions in learners’ peer feedback. Anonymity may create a social context where learners feel freer to express varied ideas, and make the task of giving feedback less inhibited. However, teachers need to know just how anonymity impacts the learning dynamic in order to make informed choices about when anonymous configurations are appropriate in peer feedback.

References:
Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer feedback: Pre-service teachers’ comments in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.

We agree with the idea that teachers must know how hiding identity can influence a learning experience so that they can make intelligent decisions regarding when hiding identity is apt in peer feedback situations (Howard, Barrett, & Frick, 2010). Without this knowledge teachers could be creating peer feedback activities that result in feedback being shared that is very different than the type that was desired or expected.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 7

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Major changes within organizations are usually initiated by those who are in power. Such decision-makers sponsor the change and then appoint someone else – perhaps the director of training – to be responsible for implementing and managing change. Whether the appointed change agent is in training development or not, there is often the implicit assumption that training will “solve the problem.” And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem…. The result is that potentially effective innovations suffer misuse, or even no use, in the hands of uncommitted users.

References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology(p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.

When top-down major changes are initiated in organizations, people tend to assume that training is needed to help members of the organization change their behavior. While training might help, if people in the organization lack commitment to accept the changes, they still might not do what management wants them to do.

References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology(p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 8

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Teacher’s professional use of technology involves preparation for various classroom activities; such as, preparing instructional materials, material, communicating or collaborating with peers, students and their parents, locating digital resources, and creating lesson plans. When technology is used for instructional delivery, the teacher or students can use it. Teachers can present instruction by means of a projector or students may use computer-assisted learning applications such as drill and practice, tutorials, and simulations. technology as a tool, involves student use of basic software applications to extend their abilities to solve problems, create products, or communicate and share their perspectives with each other.

References:
Inan, F. A., & Lowther, D. L. (2010). Factors affecting technology integration in K-12 classrooms: a path model. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(2), 137-154.

Technology offers a variety of rich opportunities available to teachers and students. According to Inan and Lowther (2010), there are three main purposes to use technology in schools: (a) technology for teachers to prepare instructional activities, plans, materials, and resources; (b) technology for instructional delivery for teachers and students; (c) technology as a learning tool for both teachers and students. Although technology provides a number of advantages for teaching and learning, teachers who try to integrate technology in their classrooms have encountered many obstacles that hinder potential benefits of use of technology.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 9

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

A communication channel is the means by which messages get from one individual to another.The nature of the information-exchange relationship between a pair of individuals determines the conditions under which a source will or will not transmit the innovation to the receiver and the effect of such a transfer.

References:
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster.

Rogers places great importance on the sharing of information about an innovation. He defines a communication channel as “the means by which messages get from one individual to another” (p. 18). He describes two general media channels of communication: mass media and interpersonal; and two scopes of channels: localite and cosmopolite.

References:
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 10

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Suppose you study a group of successful companies and you find that they emphasize customer focus, or quality improvement, or empowerment; how do you know that you haven’t merely discovered the management practice equivalent of having buildings? How do you know that you’ve discovered something that distinguishes the successful companies from other companies? You don’t know. You can’t know–not unless you have a control set, a comparison group.

References:
Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2002). Built to last: Successful habits of visionary companies. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks.

It’s clear that, in the end, they wanted to ensure that they had “discovered something that distinguishes the successful companies from other companies” rather than identifying attributes that all the successful companies studied share (e.g., an emphasis on customer focus, or quality improvement, or empowerment) (p. 14).

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